Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) uses radio waves for data collection and transfer. A typical RFID system comprises a tag or transponder, reader and a software application. Tags are implanted to products which generate radio signals with product information.

RFID technology is applied in various industries such as in retail stores, warehouses and in the health industry. The technology is developed to suit the respective use and industry. RFID technology can be categorised depending on various factors such as frequency, passive and active RFID. In this article, read about the multiple forms of RFID based on the above factors.

Low Frequency RFIDs

Low-frequency RFID structures have shorter read distance range not exceeding 10 centimetres with a frequency of 30KHz to 200KHz. The low frequency plus the limited read range make it better to read in an environment with metals and liquids. However, a low-frequency tag is appropriate for tracking animals and monitoring access to building and rooms.

High Frequency RFIDs

Unlike low-frequency RFIDs, high-frequency structures have a longer read range going up to 1 metre. The frequency range from 3MHz to 30MHz. This technology is mostly applied in effecting card payments and hostel access.

Ultra High-Frequency RFID

In ultra-high frequency, the read range goes up to 10 metres. The frequency varies from 300MHz to 3 GHz. The main advantage of these parameters is that data transfer is swift than the low and high-frequency RFIDs. However, the downside is the higher likelihoods of disruptions from materials like electromagnetic signals. Ultra-high frequency RFID is mostly used in the identification of original products such as drugs and stock control in retail stores.

Active and Passive RFID

RFID technology is classified as either active or passive, depending on the transponders communication with the reader. Active RFIDs are fitted with transmitters and a source of power on the transponder. Passive RFID lack a power source.